I would like to refer you to a very interesting (i.e. entertaining) class action – which you can find here.
In short, the claim is that McDonald’s Quarter Pounder and Double Quarter Pounder with Cheese constitutes an unlawful tying of Quarter Pounders and … cheese. While a customer may still obtain (single or double) Quarter Pounders without cheese, this is not a listed product in stores and a customer who enters into a physical store in the US will still be forced to pay the price of the (single or double) Quarter Pounder with cheese. This leads to an overcharge of 30 to 90 cents, reflecting the price McDonalds charges for the additional slices of cheese which customers ‘do not want, order, or receive’. I would point out that this requires evidence that McDonald has market power in the market for… fast food? Burgers? Fast-food burgers? Coronary-disease inducers?
You may feel that this is a silly class action. But one never knows, and it may lead to a rethinking of per se prohibitions of tying by the Supreme Court, to which decisions I now turn.