Or Brook ‘Struggling with Article 101(3) TFEU: Diverging Approaches of the Commission, EU Courts and Five Competition Authorities’ (2019) Common Market Law Review 56: 121

Since May 2004, the European Commission and national competition authorities (NCAs) have applied the EU competition provisions in parallel. Nowadays, almost 90% of antitrust investigations are carried out by NCAs. This decentralised enforcement regime builds on the assumption that the obligation to apply the same competition provisions is sufficient to ensure the uniform administration of the law. This paper, available here, argues that this assumption does not hold, as least as regards efficiency justification/defences. Since the application of the EU competition provisions involves a wide margin of discretion, national, economic and political traditions risk leading to the fragmented application of competition law. The paper presents empirical evidence that the Commission, EU courts and five national competition authorities have followed very different interpretations of Article 101(3) TFEU, which regulates efficiency justification/defences in Europe. The paper is structured as follows: Section 2 outlines the study’s empirical methodology. The paper uses a database comprising: (i) all European Commission and court decisions until 2017;…

Giuseppe Colangelo and Mariateresa Maggiolino ‘Applying Two-Sided Markets Theory: the MasterCard and American Express Decisions’ (2018) Journal of Competition Law & Economics 14(1) 115

The first judgments to apply the economic theory of multisided markets to the payment card industry have been recently adopted in the UK and in the US. This paper, available here, uses these cases to try to show that antitrust authorities should take into consideration the two-sided nature of the credit-card industry, and to explain how this can be done. Taking the multisided nature of payment systems into account is necessary to arrive at a realistic description of these markets, and to develop solid theories of harm and procompetitive justifications that can explain some business practices involving credit cards. It is structured as follows: Section II briefly describes the main economic features of multisided business models. Different authors have defined multisided markets differently, as they looked at different markets and business models. Nonetheless, the following generic traits tend to characterise all such markets: the presence of indirect network externalities that cannot be internalised through a bilateral exchange (usage and membership…

Pablo Ibáñez Colomo ‘Legal tests in EU competition law: taxonomy and operation’ (2019) Journal of European Competition Law & Practice

EU competition law does not apply a single legal test. However, the existence of various legal tests is not commonly acknowledged, nor has it been studied systematically. This paper, available here, seeks to bridge this gap. (c) Pablo Ibanez Colomo One of the objectives of this paper is to draw a map of the existing legal tests, and to clarify where each of the practices stands along a spectrum ranging from those deemed prohibited irrespective of their effects and those deemed lawful. According to the author, legal tests in EU competition law can be grouped into four main categories. First, some practices are prima facie unlawful irrespective of their effects. Secondly, some conducts are deemed prima facie lawful. Thirdly, some behaviour is subject to a ‘standard effects’ test, which seeks to ascertain whether it has, or is likely to have, anticompetitive effects in the economic and legal context in which it is implemented. Finally, an ‘enhanced effects’ test applies in…

Beatrice Stange on ‘Romano Pisciotti v Bundesrepublik Deutschland: Increased Risk of Extradition for EU Citizens after Involvement in US Cartels’ (2019) Journal of European Competition Law & Practice 10(2) 89

This paper, available here , discusses the first deportation of an EU citizen to the US for competition law infringements. It focuses on a recent judgment by the Court of Justice of the European Union on this matter. A first section outlines the factual background of the case. In 2010, a US arrest warrant was issued for Italian businessman Romano Pisciotti on account of his involvement in the marine hoses cartel. In 2013, the German federal police arrested Mr. Pisciotti at Frankfurt Airport during a stopover of his flight from Nigeria to Italy. He was provisionally detained and, a few months later, the German authorities accepted the US request for extradition despite Mr. Pisciotti’s legal appeals, inter alia before the German Federal Constitutional Court. Other extradition requests from the US authorities had so far been unsuccessful, mainly because most international extradition agreements (including the Treaty between Germany and the US) require that the sanctioned conduct must be a crime in…

Cyril Ritter ‘Antitrust in two-sided markets: looking at the U.S. Supreme Court’s Amex case from an EU perspective’ Journal of European Competition Law & Practice (2019, forthcoming)

As reviewed in last week’s email/posts, the U.S. Supreme Court recently found that American Express’s ‘anti-steering’ rules did not violate U.S. antitrust law (in a decision reviewed here). In its judgment, the Supreme Court addressed a variety of topics essential to antitrust analysis – market definition, two-sided markets, harm through price effects and output effects, cross-market efficiencies and ancillary restraints – in ways which are at odds with the European approach. This paper, available here, seeks to compare the EU and US approaches in this respect.   It is structured as follows: Section three contains a comparison of the AmEx majority and dissenting opinions. In the interest of clarity, I will review it here, instead of following the paper’s structure. In Ohio v American Express, the majority held that only one market should be defined in two-sided transaction markets. Because there is a single relevant market, cognisable harm must refer to net harm across merchants and cardholders. Even demonstrating that the benefits…

Nicholas Banasevic ‘The European Commission’s Android Decision and Broader Lessons for Article 102 Enforcement’ CPI Antitrust Chronicle December 2018

The aim of this article, which can be found here, is to analyse some of the main issues that arose in the European Commission’s Google Android decision, and to place these issues in the context of hotly debated broader themes relating to antitrust enforcement in hi-tech markets. The author is head of unit at the European Commission, so his analysis may be more authoritative than other ones, at least until the full decision is published.  The piece is structured as follows: Section II provides an overview of the Commission’s decision. Android is an open-source smart mobile operating system. Google started providing the core version of Android commercially to smartphone and tablet manufacturers (“OEMs”) for free, but included a range of contractual requirements relating to the terms for obtaining Google’s associated proprietary apps (e.g. Google’s search app) and services. The free and open-source provision of Android was a key part of getting all major OEMs signed up, which led (by 2011) to Google…

Randal Picker ‘Google Android Antitrust: Dominance Pivots and a Business Model Clash in Brussels’ CPI Antitrust Chronicle December 2018,

This paper, which can be found here,  argues that the Android decision is an exercise in platform engineering by European antitrust authorities. The decision makes a statement about acceptable entry paths for firms dominant in one market into another by demanding that a successful firm pivot away from the practices that consumers found valuable, and that indeed led to the emergence of dominance in the first place. In doing so, the Commission appears to undervalue the virtues of business model competition. The paper is structured as follows: Section II describes the European Commission’s interactions with Google. Google’s core business consists of organic horizontal search results matched with ads paid for by third parties. This, of course, is the classic business model of media markets offering consumers content – sometimes for a fee, sometimes for free – and charging advertisers that want to reach those consumers. So-called vertical search competitors, on the other hand, offered specialised search results. On November 30,…

John Yun on ‘Understanding Google’s Search Platform And The Implications For Antitrust Analyses’ (2018) Journal of Competition Law & Economics 14(2) 311

The paper, which can be found here, seeks to describe the precise nature of the various anticompetitive claims against Google, and to develop an economic framework and empirical test to assess these claims. In particular, the paper seeks to develop a conceptual framework to assess claims of leveraging monopoly power and foreclosure of vertical search competitors that could be empirically tested and applied in other jurisdictions or future investigations in platform-settings with related allegations. The paper is structured as follows: Section II describes the precise nature of the antitrust claims against Google. Google operates a multisided platform that offers users free access to its content. In turn, it sells access to those users to advertisers who wish to convert those users to purchasers. Advertising platforms must compete for both users and advertisers. These platforms attract users through quality content, more relevant and less intrusive ads, and lower prices (typically, at free or highly subsidised prices). Ad platforms attract advertisers by having users,…

Marios C. Iacovides and Jakob Jeanrond ‘Overcoming methodological challenges in the application of competition law to digital platforms—a Swedish perspective’ (2018) Journal of Antitrust Enforcement 6(3) 437

This article, which can be found here, reviews three cases dealing with multisided markets handled by the Swedish Competition Authority (SCA). The cases concerned online hotel booking, online listings of properties and the market for online orders of take away food. The article tests some predictions on the economic behaviour of platform markets that can be found in the academic literature against the outcomes of these cases. The paper is structured as follows: Section II outlines methodological challenges raised by the digital and platform economy. Platform businesses operate differently from traditional businesses, mainly because they function as matchmakers between different groups of consumers. While economists have developed new models better to explain the particular economic features associated with multisided platforms, the incorporation of these particular economic features into competition law presents certain methodological challenges. Firstly, while a platform may offer some services that a traditional business does not, one side of the platform’s service offering may directly overlap with that…

Marco Botta and Klaus Wiedemann ‘EU Competition Law Enforcement vis-à-vis Exploitative Conducts in the Data Economy’ Max Planck Institute for Innovation & Competition Research Paper No. 18-08

This long paper (90 pages), which can be found here, seeks to understand how traditional principles of EU law – particularly those related to exploitative abuses and respective remedies – apply to new business models that mainly rely on processing large amounts of users’ data. The analysis does not extend to the US because, following Trinko, the authors consider that antitrust law there does not extend to exploitative practices, even if the FTC has powers under the Sherman Act to pursue such practices under consumer and unfair practices law. I am afraid the review is rather long, because this paper’s contents are the equivalent of multiple articles. The paper is structured as follows: Section 2 provides an overview of European case law vis-à-vis exploitative abuses. Art. 102 TFEU lists a number of exploitative abuses. Nevertheless, the European Commission has long focused on investigating exclusionary, rather than exploitative abuses. While this has led to limited case law on exploitative abuses, the authors identify…