Andres Caro ‘Leveraging market power online: the Google Shopping case’ (2018) Competition Law Journal 17(1) 49

The Google Shopping case raises many important questions, such as: how do we deal with the leveraging of market power in digital markets? How do we weigh the benefits to consumers against the potential harm to competition? And, lastly, what are the appropriate remedies for this type of behaviour? In addressing these questions, this paper is structured as follows: A first section describes the background to the Google Shopping decision by the European Commission. Google aggregates, sorts, displays and provides direct access to retailers’ webpages in exchange for a fee through Google Shopping. Other online platforms, including Nextag, Foundem and Shopzilla, offer similar services. However, until early 2018 ‘while competing comparison shopping services can appear only as generic search results and are prone to the ranking of their web pages in generic search results on Google’s general search results pages being reduced (‘demoted’) by certain algorithms, Google’s own comparison shopping service is prominently positioned, displayed in rich format and is…

Edward Iacobucci and Francesco Ducci ‘The Google Search Case In Europe: Tying and the Single Monopoly Profit Theorem in Two-Sided Markets’ (2018) European Journal of Law and Economics 47 15

According to the authors, the European Commission in its Google Shopping case did not outline which theory of foreclosure justified its finding of infringement. Likewise, there is no consensus in the literature about which theory of harm may best justify the decision. In the light of this, the authors seek to develop such an economic and legal theory of harm in this paper, which can be found here. They argue that, by tying its search and shopping platforms, Google became able to serve customers with whom it would have not dealt otherwise. However, this may divert trade from potentially more efficient vertical platforms. By tying its shopping search to its general search service through visual prominence, Google can attract additional advertisers on its search platform that would otherwise have possibly advertised on competing search platforms. Thus, the effect of tying is a restriction on competition in vertical search that deserves antitrust scrutiny. The paper is structured as follows: Section 2 reviews the…

Thomas Hoppner, Felicitas Schaper, and Philipp Westerhoff ‘Google Search (Shopping) as a Precedent for Disintermediation in Other Sectors – The Example of Google for Jobs’ (2018) Journal of European Competition Law & Practice 9(10) 627

The Google Shopping decision was said by the Commission to be “a precedent which establishes the framework for the assessment of the legality of this type of conduct”, i.e. the use of a dominant platform to favour one’s own ancillary service. Despite this, in 2018 Google launched a new service, Google for Jobs, for the matching of job seekers and employers in Europe. This article, available here, examines whether the manner with which Google is presenting its new Google for Jobs service on its general search results pages complies with the precedent set out by the Google Shopping decision. The paper is structured as follows: Sections II and III provide some insights into search and search bias, and reviews the European Commission’s Google Shopping decision. Upon a user’s query in Google Search, Google’s general search results pages generally produce three different categories of search results: (i) Generic Search Results, (ii) Specialised Search Results and (iii) AdWords Results. The likelihood that a user…